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Bauxite is the primary ore of aluminum. Almost all of the aluminum that has ever been produced has been extracted from bauxite. The United States has a few small bauxite deposits but at least 99% of the bauxite used in the United States is imported. The United States is also a major importer of aluminum metal.
Bauxite is found in abundance at many locations around the world. In 2017 the ten leading bauxite producing countries were: Australia, China, Brazil, India, Guinea, Jamaica, Russia, and Kazakhstan. Each of these countries has enough reserves for many years of continued production. Some have reserves for over 100 years of production.
The name originates from the Old English Anglo-Saxon word ‘geolo’ meaning yellow. The Symbol Origin is from the Latin word ‘aurum’ meaning ‘shining dawn’ which is in reference to Aurora, the Roman Goddess of dawn. Gold was once referred to as one of the ‘Noble Metals’ which also included Silver and Platinum. Noble Metals were so called due to their long association with the aristocracy.
Gold has many uses aside from its monetary and symbolic value. Among other applications, it is used in electronics, electrical wiring, dentistry, electronics, medicine, radiation shielding, and to color glass.
High purity metallic gold is odorless and tasteless. This makes sense since the metal is unreactive. Metal ions are what confers flavor and odor to metallic elements and compounds.
Cottonseed oil is cooking oil from the seeds of cotton plants of various species, mainly Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium herbaceum, that are grown for cotton fiber, animal feed, and oil.
Cotton seed has a similar structure to other oilseeds such as sunflower seed, having an oil-bearing kernel surrounded by a hardouter hull; in processing, the oil is extracted from the kernel. Cottonseed oil is used for salad oil, mayonnaise, salad dressing, and similar products because of its flavor stability.
Cottonseed, seed of the cotton plant, important commercially for its oil and other products. Cottonseed oil is used in salad and cooking oils and, after hydrogenation, in shortenings and margarine. The cake, or meal, remaining after the oil is extracted is used in poultry and livestock feeds. Linters, the short cellulose fibres left on the seed after the staple cotton is removed by ginning, are used to make coarse yarns and many cellulose products.
The mature seeds are brown ovoids weighing about a tenth of a gram. By weight, they are 60% cotyledon, 32% coat and 8% embryonic root and shoot. These are 20% protein, 20% oil and 3.5% starch. Fibers grow from the seed coat to form a boll of cotton lint. The boll is a protective fruit and when the plant is grown commercially, it is stripped from the seed by ginning and the lint is then processed into cotton fibre. For unit weight of fibre, about 1.6 units of seeds are produced. The seeds are about 15% of the value of the crop and are pressed to make oil and used as ruminant animal feed. About 5% of the seeds are used for sowing the next crop.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. The various types of sugar are derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose, and galactose. “Table sugar” or “granulated sugar” refers to sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into fructose and glucose.
Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but sucrose is especially concentrated in sugarcane and sugar beet, making them ideal for efficient commercial extraction to make refined sugar. Sugarcane originated in tropical Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, and is known of from before 6,000 BP, sugar beet was first described in writing (1575) by Olivier de Serres and originated in southwestern, northern and Southeast Europe along the Atlantic coasts and the Mediterranean Sea, in North Africa, Macaronesia, to Western Asia. In 2016, the combined world production of those two crops was about two billion tonnes. Other disaccharides include maltose (from malted grain) and lactose (from milk). Longer chains of sugar molecules are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols, may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar.
Rice, a monocot, is normally grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 30 years. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate and requires ample water. However, rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a steep hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems. Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures worldwide.
Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice
The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings. This simple method requires sound planning and servicing of the water damming and channeling, but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, and deters vermin. While flooding is not mandatory for the cultivation of rice, all other methods of irrigation require higher effort in weed and pest control during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil.
A coffee bean is a seed of the coffee plant and the source for the coffee beverage. Even though the coffee seeds are not beans, they are referred to as “beans” because of their resemblance to true beans. Like Brazil nuts (a seed) and white rice, coffee beans consist mostly of endosperm.
It is the pit inside the coffee berry, a sweet, red stone fruit similar in appearance to a grape tomato—however, it was said by some to resemble a cherry, thus the colloquial term “coffee cherry”. They most commonly contain two stones with their flat sides together. A small percentage of fruits contain a single seed, instead of the usual two. This is called a “peaberry”. The peaberry occurs only between 10 and 15% of the time, and the belief that their contained seeds have more flavour than normal coffee beans is fairly common, yet scientifically unproven.
The two most economically important varieties of coffee plant are the Arabica and the Robusta; ~60% of the coffee produced worldwide is Arabica and ~40% is Robusta. Arabica beans consist of 0.8–1.4% caffeine and Robusta beans consist of 1.7–4% caffeine. As coffee is one of the world’s most widely consumed beverages, coffee beans are a major cash crop and an important export product, accounting for over 50% of some developing nations’ foreign exchange earnings.
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced primarily from plants in the genus Corchorus, which was once classified with the family Tiliaceae, and more recently with Malvaceae. The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius, but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis. “Jute” is the name of the plant or fiber used to make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth.
Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers, and second only to cotton in the amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibers are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin. It falls into the bast fiber category (fiber collected from bast, the phloem of the plant, sometimes called the “skin”) along with kenaf, industrial hemp, flax (linen), ramie, etc. The industrial term for jute fiber is raw jute. The fibers are off-white to brown, and 1–4 metres (3–13 feet) long. Jute is also called the golden fiber for its color and high cash value.